AUTOMATION OF FINGERPRINT COLLECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN INTERIOR MINISTRY
GOAL: To create AFIS sites at all levels of law enforcement community, to convert all accumulated paper tenprint collections into electronic form for effective information support of law enforcers in the investigation of crimes, terrorist attacks, identification of the unknown dead.
Background and Objectives
The history of fingerprint registration in Russia dates back to December 1906. Theoretical research on the possibility of automating fingerprint records was started by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in the 50s of the last century. Since the early 70s, these studies had been concentrated in the Main Information Center of the Ministry. In the 90s, that task-oriented work and efforts to create and implement an AFIS succeeded in several steps:
- Developers were given incentives to create a number of domestic workable AFISs.
- Various AFISs were tested in hundreds of forensic units, and invaluable experience in operating and comparing the systems on real fingerprint collections was accumulated.
- The most effective and promising AFIS was selected.
- The selected technology was validated in automation projects of regional and interregional fingerprint collections. The effectiveness of interregional fingerprint checks to detect serial crimes and those of migratory nature, as well as to identify the unknown dead, was proven.
- The selected technology was adapted to solve the problem of full-scale automation of multimillion tenprint records amassed in internal affairs departments throughout Russia
In 2002, the work began to create a national AFIS and interregional AFISs with an outlook for a full-scale implementation of AFIS in all regions of the Russian Federation using a single technology, a single hardware and software platform, and a single database format. For accomplishing this mission, the PAPILLON AFIS technology was picked out.
- Automation of fingerprint records at all levels of internal affairs bodies of Russia, the shared use of this information (enrollment, execution of identity queries, checking of latent prints to investigate and solve crimes)
- Conversion of paper tenprint cards and unsolved latent prints, accumulated in information centers and forensic agencies, to an electronic format
- Creation of a multi-level (regional, interregional, national) AFIS providing inter-level and interregional interaction for identification, checks of individuals for their implication in crimes, and for database seeding
- Widespread adoption of the technology of electronic (live-scan) fingerprinting to form and replenish collections of known fingerprints
- Large-scale implementation of the technology of express ID checks against AFIS databases in real-time to establish/confirm personal identity
Full-scale pre-design analysis and engineering and exploratory works have been carried out. Construction and assembly works have been completed to prepare premises for installing the AFIS equipment in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in the Internal Affairs Directorates of republican and regional centers.
From 2002 to 2011, the AFIS software and hardware was delivered, installed and commissioned. As a result, a multi-level AFIS of 82 sites was created:
- National AFIS (80 million tenprints)
- 10 Interregional AFISs (from 3 to 10 million tenprints)
- 71 Regional AFISs (from 150 thousand to 3 million tenprints)
Put into operation:
- 1,016 operator workstations in regional centers
- 1,223 local AFIS stations interacting with regional AFISs
- 1,264 stations of electronic fingerprinting and express ID checks (MDS) interacting with regional AFISs
All types of fingerprint records have been automated. All collections of paper tenprint cards and latents amassed at Information Centers and at the Forensic Science Center have been converted to electronic format.
Generated are the following electronic databases:
- 155 million tenprint cards
- 4 million latent fingerprints
- 1 million latent palmprints
Now the following amount of dactyloscopic information can be processed daily:
- 50,000 tenprint cards
- 3,000 latent fingerprints
- 800 latent palmprints
The proper training has been organized to provide the AFIS sites with qualified personnel:
- 4,865 AFIS operators
- 685 AFIS administrators
- 1,520 operators of stations of electronic fingerprinting and express ID checking
To ensure the smooth operation of AFIS complexes:
- PAPILLON provides after-sales technical maintenance and support
- PAPILLON’s specialists are on permanent duty at the National and Interregional AFIS sites
- A multi-channel technical support hotline is available
Results and Effect
Implementation of AFIS-MVD has enabled:
- multiple increase in the effective use of dactyloscopic records
- reduction of hours spent on investigating and solving crimes
- maintenance of fingerprint collections in digital, paperless form, which corresponds to the national trend of transition to e-document management
- wide use of automatic real-time express ID technology
- integration of AFIS-MVD with AFIS systems of other institutions and agencies
The use of the AFIS allows the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs yearly:
- to identify more than 200,000 persons enrolled under fake names
- to identify about 15,000 cases of the unknown dead
- to identify about 120,000 latent prints related to unsolved crimes
In many cases, the AFIS allows the Russian law enforcers to identify persons involved in crimes in hot pursuit, which makes it possible to quickly detect suspects and minimize the costs borne by agencies to conduct field investigative activities. The economic effect of using the AFIS in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, only in terms of reducing these costs, amounts to ~ 10 billion rubles per year, without taking into account the economic and social effect by reducing the crime rate and implementing the principle of inevitability of punishment as a function that prevents new crimes.